Reflecting this season of traditions, HFI's December newsletter reviews the findings of the research presented in our Putting Research into Practice course. In preparing this course, recent research from various disciplines (including Human Computer Interaction / Ergonomics, Cognitive & Social Psychology, Computer Science, Marketing, Economics...) that might have implications for usability professionals is systematically reviewed. The most interesting, important, and applicable papers are summarized for presentation in our 3 day seminar.
As in 2003, we present empirically derived conclusions (rather than guidelines) so as to provide practitioners direct access to recent research citations in the justification of their design decisions.
By the way, if you only read one paper about usability this year, read this one:
Faulkner, L., Beyond the five-user assumption: Benefits of increased sample sizes in usability testing (2003). Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 35 (3), 379-383.
Security, information quality and quantity are predictors of user-satisfaction in e-commerce. (Lightner, 2003)
Sensory impact influences younger users, whereas vendor reputation is a better predictor of satisfaction for older, more educated users. (Lightner, 2003)
Young adults believe that technology provides great opportunities for freedom and efficiency. However, they also recognize the risks of social isolation, information overload. (Gustafsson, 2003)
Trust in the on-line purchase process is influenced by:
(Corritore, C.L., Krachcher, B., & Wiedenbeck, S., 2003)
People tend to use the Web to shop for intangible products such as software, mortgages, tickets, and insurance rather than are tangible items such as groceries, clothing and furniture. (Vijayasarthy, 2002)
Consumer purchase behavior is driven by perceived security, privacy, quality of content and design, in that order. (Ranganathan, C., Ganapathy, S., 2002)
Price was not a factor influencing the tendency to purchase more intangible than tangible items on the Web. (Vijayasarthy, 2002).
The more consumers know about shortcomings in privacy and information reliability on the Web, the more likely they are to use the Internet. (Jackson, L.A. et al., 2003)
Satisfied customers are more loyal to their online service providers than bricks and mortar providers. (Shankar, Smith, & Rangaswamy, 2003)
On consumer product (e.g., apparel) sites, interactive imagery:
Consumers who are in a good mood tend to browse more and buy less than consumers in a bad mood. (Xia, L., 2002)
Users will wait longer for better content. Users will wait between 8-10 seconds for information on the Web, depending on the quality of the information. (Ryan and Valverde, 2003)
Experienced users won't wait as long as novices. (Ryan and Valverde, 2003)
Including and highlighting design features that reduce negative attitudes about a site will increase usage. (Jackson, 2003)
Users can be engaged by Web advertising if it fulfills the users' reasons for visiting the Web: to seek information, or be entertained. (Zhou, Z., & Bao, Y,. 2002)
Sophisticated users demand more informative ads. (Zhou, Z., & Bao, Y., 2002)
Heavy Web users purchase 11% more online, and perceive ads to be more informative, helpful and entertaining. (Korgaonkar & Wolin 2002)
Co-branding can enhance brands with complementary strengths, however, co-branding is generally difficult and often goes unnoticed by consumers. (Bengtsson, A. 2002)
Rapid blast messages are more likely to be noticed and noticed faster than ticker messaging or slowly fading messages. (McCrickard, D.S. et al., 2003)
The content of "ticker" alerts is remembered better than rapid blast messages or slowly fading messages. (McCrickard, D.S. et al., 2003)
In community feedback environments, recommenders are influenced by prior ratings (including inaccurate ones). (Cosley, D., et al., 2003)
To minimize the exposure bias of previous recommenders, avoid showing previous scores to new raters when possible. (Cosley, D., et al., 2003)
The highest impact Web-community word of mouth interactions:
Online focus groups tend to elicit more comments, have a stronger task focus and have a more balanced distribution of comments among participants. (Easton, Easton, & Belch, 2003)
Scenarios are valuable in both conceptual design and detailed page design. (Hertzum, M., 2003)
The use of scenarios can help to bring developers into the user-centered design process. (Hertzum, M., 2003)
Interfaces are usable when they support human reasoning and learning styles: Designers fail to appreciate how humans rely on mental short cuts such as linking new information to a previously learned framework (called a "schema"). (Chalmers, P.A., 2003)
Well organized information hierarchies can be as effective and satisfying as search engines. (Ma, S., & Salvendy, G., 2003)
Conventional blue colored links presented in the left hand column proved fastest and most usable main navigation. (Pearson, R., & van Schaik, P., 2003)
Experience matters: Blue links are easier to click than black ones, even though black ones have higher visual contrast and are easier to see. (van Schaik, P., & Ling, J., 2003)
Keyboard shortcuts prove to be significantly faster and more accurate than mouse clicks. Despite practice using a mouse, nearly all users preferred using keyboard shortcuts. (Jorgensen, A.H. et al., 2002)
Well written sites significantly reduce confusion, comprehension errors and reading times. (Ozok, A.A., & Salvendy, G., 2003)
This effect of bad Web writing will likely be amplified for non-native English speakers. (Ozok, A.A., & Salvendy, G., 2003)
Concrete icons are easier to recognize for infrequent users. Frequent users perform equally well using both concrete and abstract icons. (McDougall et al., 2001)
Animation is effective when presenting complex concepts. (Weiss, R., Knowlton, D., & Morrison, G.R., 2002)
The acceptance and impact animation is enhanced when users are warned to expect it and allowed to start it when they want. (Weiss, R., Knowlton, D., & Morrison, G.R., 2002)
In e-learning environments, pairing narration with animation maximizes its effectiveness. Video of the narrator is not recommended. (Weiss, R., Knowlton, D., & Morrison, G.R., 2002)
On average, testing 10 participants in a usability test results in capturing 80% of the issues. If you test only 5, the range of issues captured goes from as high as 85% to as low as 55% depending on the participant group. (Faulkner, L., 2003)
Lab and remote usability studies capture very similar performance information. (Tullis, et al., 2002)
Remote studies allow for more diversity in participants. Lab studies allow the observation of non-verbal behaviors. (Tullis, et al., 2002)
Users who are being observed by a facilitator are more diligent: They stick with a task about twice as long, and clicked three times more links than those who are not being directly observed. (Schutle-Mecklenbeck, M., & Huber, O., 2003)
When rating things, users preferred the 7-point scale to continuous, direct-manipulation sliders in on-line surveys. Both approaches yielded the same results. (van Schaik, P., & Ling, J., 2003)
Web pages generally vary in three dimensions: layout, navigation support, and information density. (Ryan, T., Field, R.H.G., Olfman, L., 2004)
Over time, Web sites have evolved from big button designs to frames to scattered buttons pages to high color to functionally sub-divided layouts or portal pages. (Ryan, T., Field, R.H.G., Olfman, L., 2004)
Semi-localization can be achieved in a standard design system by keeping the information design and presentation design constant while allowing content to significantly vary by location. This approach supports a unified global brand. (Robbins, S.S., & Stylianou, A.C., 2003)
Bengtsson, A., Unnoticed relationships: Do consumers experience co-branded products? (2002). Advances in Consumer Research 29, 521-527.
Bickart et al., Expanding the scope of word of mouth: consumer-to-consumer information on the internet (2002). Advances in Consumer Research 28, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 428-430.
Chalmers, P.A., The role of cognitive theory in human-computer interface (2003). Computers in Human Behavior 19, 593-607.
Corritore, C.L., Krachcher, B., & Wiedenbeck, S., On-line trust: concepts, evolving themes (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 737-758.
Cosley, D., et al., Is seeing believing? How recommender interfaces affect users’ opinions (2003). CHI 5 (1), 585-592.
Easton, G., Easton, A., & Belch, M., An experimental investigation of electronic focus groups (2003). Information & Management 40, 717-727.
Faulkner, L., Beyond the five-user assumption: Benefits of increased sample sizes in usability testing (2003). Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 35 (3), 379-383.
Fiore, A.M. & Fin, H.-J., The influence of image interactivity on approach responses towards an online realtor (2003). Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 13 (1), 38-48.
Gustafsson, E. et al., The use of information technology among young adults: Experience, attitudes, and health beliefs (2003). Applied Ergonomics 34, 565-570.
Hertzum, M., Making use of scenarios: A field study of conceptual design (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 215-239.
Jackson, L.A. et al., Internet attitudes and Internet use: some surprising findings from the HomeNetToo project (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59, 355-382.
Jorgensen, A.H. et al., Using mouse and keyboard under time pressure: Preference, strategies and learning (2002). Behavior & Information Technology. 21 (5), 317-319.
Korgaonkar, P. & Wolin, L.D., Web usage, advertising and shopping: relationship patterns (2002). Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 12 (2), 191-204.
Lightner, N.J., What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income (2003). Ergonomics 46, (1-3), 153-168.
Ma, S., & Salvendy, G., Graphical web directory for web search (2003). Behaviour & Information Technology 22 (2), 71-77.
McCrickard, D.S. et al., Establishing tradeoffs that leverage attention for utility: empirically evaluating information display in notification systems (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 547-582.
McDougall et al, The effects of visual information on users' mental models: an evaluation of pathfinder analysis as a measure of icon usability (2001). International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics. 5 (1), 59-84.
Ozok, A.A., & Salvendy, G., The effect of language inconsistency on performance and satisfaction in using the Web: Results from three experiments (2003). Behavior & Information Technology 22 (3), 155-163.
Pearson, R., & van Schaik, P., The effect of spatial layout and link color in web pages on performance in a visual search task and an interactive search task (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59, 327-353.
Ranganathan, C., Ganapathy, S., Key dimensions of business-to-consumer web sites (2002). Information & Management 39, 457-465.
Robbins, S.S., & Stylianou, A.C., Global corporate web sites: An empirical investigation of content and design (2003). Information & Management 40 (3), 205-212.
Ryan, G. & Valverde, M., Waiting online: A review and research agenda (2003). Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 13 (3), 195-205.
Ryan, T., Field, R.H.G., Olfman, L., The evolution of US state government home pages from 1997 to 2002 (2004). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, in press.
Schutle-Mecklenbeck, M., & Huber, O., Information search in the laboratory and on the web: With or without an experimenter (2003). Behavior Research & Methods, Instruments & Computers 35 (2), 227-235.
Shankar, V., Smith, A.K., & Rangaswamy, A., Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments (2003). International Journal of Marketing Research, 20, 153-175.
Tullis T., et al., An empirical comparison of lab and remote usability testing of web sites (2002). Usability Professionals Association Conference.
van Schaik, P., & Ling, J., The effect of link colour on information retrieval in educational intranet use (2003). Computers in Human Behavior 19, 553-564.
van Schaik, P., & Ling, J., Using online surveys to measure three key constructs of the quality of human-computer interaction in web sites: Psychometric properties and implications (2003). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59 (5), 545-567.
Vijayasarthy, L.R., Product characteristics and internet shopping intentions (2002). Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 12 (5), 411-426.
Weiss, R., Knowlton, D., & Morrison, G.R., Principles for using animation in computer-based instruction: Theoretical heuristics for effective design (2002). Computers in Human Behavior 18, 465-477.
Xia, L., Affect as information: the role of affect in consumer online behavior (2002). Advances in Consumer Research 29, 93-99.
Zhou, Z., & Bao, Y., Users' attitudes toward web advertising: effects of Internet motivation and Internet ability (2002). Advances in Consumer Research 29, 71-78.
Sign up to get our Newsletter delivered straight to your inbox
HFI may use ‚Äúcookies‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúweb beacons‚ÄĚ to track how Users use the Website. A cookie is a piece of software that a web server can store on Users‚Äô PCs and use to identify Users should they visit the Website again. Users may adjust their web browser software if they do not wish to accept cookies. To withdraw your consent after accepting a cookie, delete the cookie from your computer.
HFI believes that every User should know how it utilizes the information collected from Users. The Website is not directed at children under 13 years of age, and HFI does not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from children under 13 years of age online. Please note that the Website may contain links to other websites. These linked sites may not be operated or controlled by HFI. HFI is not responsible for the privacy practices of these or any other websites, and you access these websites entirely at your own risk. HFI recommends that you review the privacy practices of any other websites that you choose to visit.
HFI is based, and this website is hosted, in the United States of America. If User is from the European Union or other regions of the world with laws governing data collection and use that may differ from U.S. law and User is registering an account on the Website, visiting the Website, purchasing products or services from HFI or the Website, or otherwise using the Website, please note that any personally identifiable information that User provides to HFI will be transferred to the United States. Any such personally identifiable information provided will be processed and stored in the United States by HFI or a service provider acting on its behalf. By providing your personally identifiable information, User hereby specifically and expressly consents to such transfer and processing and the uses and disclosures set forth herein.
In the course of its business, HFI may perform expert reviews, usability testing, and other consulting work where personal privacy is a concern. HFI believes in the importance of protecting personal information, and may use measures to provide this protection, including, but not limited to, using consent forms for participants or ‚Äúdummy‚ÄĚ test data.
HFI may use personally identifiable information collected through the Website for the specific purposes for which the information was collected, to process purchases and sales of products or services offered via the Website if any, to contact Users regarding products and services offered by HFI, its parent, subsidiary and other related companies in order to otherwise to enhance Users‚Äô experience with HFI. HFI may also use information collected through the Website for research regarding the effectiveness of the Website and the business planning, marketing, advertising and sales efforts of HFI. HFI does not sell any User information under any circumstances.
HFI may disclose personally identifiable information collected from Users to its parent, subsidiary and other related companies to use the information for the purposes outlined above, as necessary to provide the services offered by HFI and to provide the Website itself, and for the specific purposes for which the information was collected. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information at the request of law enforcement or governmental agencies or in response to subpoenas, court orders or other legal process, to establish, protect or exercise HFI‚Äôs legal or other rights or to defend against a legal claim or as otherwise required or allowed by law. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information in order to protect the rights, property or safety of a User or any other person. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information to investigate or prevent a violation by User of any contractual or other relationship with HFI or the perpetration of any illegal or harmful activity. HFI may also disclose aggregate, anonymous data based on information collected from Users to investors and potential partners. Finally, HFI may disclose or transfer personally identifiable information collected from Users in connection with or in contemplation of a sale of its assets or business or a merger, consolidation or other reorganization of its business.
If a User includes such User‚Äôs personally identifiable information as part of the User posting to the Website, such information may be made available to any parties using the Website. HFI does not edit or otherwise remove such information from User information before it is posted on the Website. If a User does not wish to have such User‚Äôs personally identifiable information made available in this manner, such User must remove any such information before posting. HFI is not liable for any damages caused or incurred due to personally identifiable information made available in the foregoing manners. For example, a User posts on an HFI-administered forum would be considered Personal Information as provided by User and subject to the terms of this section.
Information about Users that is maintained on HFI‚Äôs systems or those of its service providers is protected using industry standard security measures. However, no security measures are perfect or impenetrable, and HFI cannot guarantee that the information submitted to, maintained on or transmitted from its systems will be completely secure. HFI is not responsible for the circumvention of any privacy settings or security measures relating to the Website by any Users or third parties.
Human Factors International, Inc.
PO Box 2020
1680 highway 1, STE 3600
Fairfield IA 52556
HFI reserves the right to cancel any course up to 14 (fourteen) days prior to the first day of the course. Registrants will be promptly notified and will receive a full refund or be transferred to the equivalent class of their choice within a 12-month period. HFI is not responsible for travel expenses or any costs that may be incurred as a result of cancellations.
$100 processing fee if cancelling within two weeks of course start date.
4 Pack + Exam registration: Rs. 10,000 per participant processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the course (4 Pack-CUA/CXA) registration before three weeks from the course start date. No refund or carry forward of the course fees if cancelling or transferring the course registration within three weeks before the course start date.
Individual Modules: Rs. 3,000 per participant ‚Äėper module‚Äô processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the course (any Individual HFI course) registration before three weeks from the course start date. No refund or carry forward of the course fees if cancelling or transferring the course registration within three weeks before the course start date.
Exam: Rs. 3,000 per participant processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the pre agreed CUA/CXA exam date before three weeks from the examination date. No refund or carry forward of the exam fees if requesting/cancelling or transferring the CUA/CXA exam within three weeks before the examination date.
There will be no audio or video recording allowed in class. Students who have any disability that might affect their performance in this class are encouraged to speak with the instructor at the beginning of the class.
The course and training materials and all other handouts provided by HFI during the course are published, copyrighted works proprietary and owned exclusively by HFI. The course participant does not acquire title nor ownership rights in any of these materials. Further the course participant agrees not to reproduce, modify, and/or convert to electronic format (i.e., softcopy) any of the materials received from or provided by HFI. The materials provided in the class are for the sole use of the class participant. HFI does not provide the materials in electronic format to the participants in public or onsite courses.