Cool stuff and UX resources

This article identifies nine factors to pay attention to when designing mobile user experiences, and shows how they are related to nine underlying psychological factors.

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Sharing Discoverability Through Better Tag Strategies – how semantic web concepts improve your search-and-list challenges Comments (1)
Special edition
A Game Changer for User Experience (UX) Work – HFI's object-oriented approach to enterprise UX. Comments (0)
September Designing Naturally With Gestalt in Mind – the "active ingredient" in great graphic layouts Comments (6)
July/August Verbalizing About Visuals: Targets, Team, and Tag Lines – visual vs. verbal design approaches Comments (1)
June Expert Reviews Require Expert Senses – how to structure your expert reviews Comments (4)
May Pictures for Presenting the "Big Picture" of UX Design – visualization as an aid to comprehension Comments (0)
March/April Beating the "Observer Effect" in User Interviews – "the deeper truth" in user analysis Comments (3)
February Secrets to Setting the Context for Usability – approaches to cross-cultural UI design Comments (1)
January The Coming Surge in Emerging Markets – approaches to cross-cultural UI design Comments (0)
December Recapping the HFI UI Design Message for 2010 – What we have learned in HFI's 2010 newsletters. Comments (0)
Visionary Usability: Making Friends With Graphic Design – The science of visual appeal in Web design Comments (6)
Seeing Is Believing (How to Design for Video) – The impact of video when designing your website. Comments (1)
September New Methods for Understanding News Provider Websites – Insights into methods for understanding user behaviors. Comments (0)
August Usability Test Reporting: "It Ain't Over 'Til It's Over" – Insights into writing the right stuff. Comments (3)
July Using the Goldilocks Principle to get design "just right" – How to zero in on your design without zeroing out Comments (2)
June To See Is To Conquer, Or Is It? – A political challenge to usability. Comments (3)
May New Techniques: How to Talk Truthfully About Usability Testing – The straight rap on explaining your test results. Comments (4)
April Playing to Win – The importance of bringing fun to your interfaces. Comments (2)
March "Flow" – the iPhone (and Web) Experience that Sells – The necessity of "flow" for a positive user experience. Comments (3)
February Loving the Madness of Good Design: "Institutionalize us all" – How to get your organization excited about usability. Comments (3)
January Clean Metrics from Quick and Dirty Assessment: "The SUS" – An easy method for "grading" your interface design. Comments (6)
December "User Experience" meets "Beauty is Truth, Truth is Beauty" – The foundations of "user-experience" design. Comments (1)
Wherefore Art Thou O Usability? – Cognitive lock-in to the rescue – The missing link between usability and profitability. Comments (5)
Where is a good chart when you need it? – Guidelines for creating online decision tools. Comments (3)
September Harnessing your power of first impression – Socially responsible design but with a compelling prolog. Comments (1)
August Can you avoid political fallout from your standards effort? – The politics of standards. Comments (3)
July Does audience gender influence your persuasive message? – How your design is in the eye of the beholder. Comments (4)
June Do age and experience impact interaction with devices? – The importance of understanding generational approaches to dealing with devices. Comments (6)
April/May Does product sorting on a product web page influence decision-making? – The importance of presentation. Comments (0)
February/March Kindle2: Crack for readers... until you start reading – How text formatting can ruin (or enhance) the readability and persuasiveness of text. Comments (1)
January ...just because. – The persuasive pull of justified requests. Comments (0)
November Save the Earth. Everybody's doing it. – On selecting the right persuasive hook. Comments (7)
Why the Bradley Effect is not about race Comments (2)
You won't see what you don't look at... – Using eyetracking to evaluate engagement and click likelihood Comments (3)
August Back-to-School Reading Comments (3)
June/July On Prose and Cons – When two-sided frames increase attitude certainty and behavioral intention Comments (2)
May Look composed – How visuals can draw and drive attention. Comments (7)
April Layering the customer experience – Humor helps, but only if it's not funny to start with Comments (3)
March Of cold meds and value – Understanding irrational decision making under certainty. Comments (4)
February One site fits all doesn't fit – Exploring cultural differences in consumer segmentation Comments (4)
December Show me the study! 2007 annual research review Comments (1)
Meta-Usability – When the method is not the message Comments (3)
Playing doctor? – Trends in health information seeking on the Web Comments (4)
August The Art of Icons – Where more realism is better, and why that's helpful. Comments (3)
July Serious Games – On using simulation experiences to encourage desired behavior Comments (5)
June Understanding the persuasive flow – or How we can learn to love online advertising – recent research on the effectiveness of Web advertising and ways to improve its usability. Comments (1)
May Why "how many users" is just the wrong question – Rethinking the requirements for valid usability tests. Comments (2)
April Thin slicing: inside or outside the world of user experience? – research showing that users make quick judgments on very little information and how this affects the design of the online experience. Comments (5)
March Designing for "mature" users – Research-based guidelines that you should know when designing sites that are visited by older users. Comments (2)
February Do you see what I see? Exploring cross cultural variation in looking behavior – some cultural differences in how people view Web sites. Comments (8)
January What's your unconscious got to do with it? – the significant role the unconscious mind plays in consumer decision making, and some ways to measure the effects. Comments (4)
December What did we learn this year? 2006 Annual Research Review – our annual year-end summary of usability research. Comments (1)
Can one build a Web site or application that engenders trust? – research-based design principles and a user-centered process are the basis of generating trust Comments (4)
Narrative presentation and building brands – recent research which demonstrates the power of presenting user experience as narrative, and its importance in brand development. Comments (7)
Knowing what the buyers want, when they want it – recent research on the effectiveness of Web personalization strategies. Comments (2)
August Heatwave! Leveraging heat maps (and other eye tracking data) to refine your information architecture – eye tracking technology has advanced to the point where it can now be taken seriously as a standard tool for usability practitioners. Comments (4)
July Is usability testing as we know it about to radically change? – new trends in usability testing. Comments (3)
June Oh, that kind of better... On the trade-off between feature-laden and usable – the disparity between what consumers think they need and what they can actually use. Comments (3)
April If yuo can raed this yuor brian wroks... Debunking urban legends with usable explanations – how too much educating is not always the best way to get your point across. Comments (6)
March When getting the job done isn't enough... How insight into users' process makes interactions more satisfying – how the types of data you collect in a usability test can effect the impact of your redesign recommendations. Comments (1)
February Where are you when I need you??? (or... Ending the search for search) – users' expectations of where items should be placed on your Web page. Comments (8)
January Selling older users short – the use of the Internet and hand-held devices by older adults and the impact on user interface design. Comments (1)
December Yeah, but can you give me a reference? 2.0 – HFI's 2005 annual summary of usability research Comments (0)
Is Beauty the new usability attribute? – the interaction of Aesthetics and Usability. Comments (3)
Fine-tuning your Internet deception detectors – how people detect, and often miss, Web site fraud. Comments (2)
Much ado about sex and Web sites... or why it's still important to know who your users are – recent research on the effect of designer gender on Web site design. Comments (1)
July When discount usability misleads management – a solution – the difference between finding usability problems and predicting success rates. Comments (3)
May When what they see is what you get – but satisficing isn't enough – the importance of effective detailed design. Comments (4)
April Making it findable – the relative importance of user-centered labels and structure. Comments (1)
March Seeking clarity on consistency – defining the design elements that contribute to perceived consistency in interface design. Comments (0)
February The world is ready for usability. Is usability ready for the world? – the prerequisites for making usability routine. Comments (0)
January The answer you're searching for... is "Browse" – the effectiveness and user preference of browsing vs. searching. Comments (0)
December Yeah, but can you give me a reference? 2004 Annual Research Review – HFI's annual summary of usability research. Comments (0)
Observer Effects in Usability Testing... or, how to collect data without messing it up – The effect of the observer on usability testing and the differing results between laboratory and unmoderated remote testing. Comments (2)
Do you hear what I hear? ... or why it may not matter that users still ignore breadcrumbs – Recent research on breadcrumb navigation. Comments (0)
Mind the Gap... On the appropriate use of focus groups and usability testing in planning and evaluating Interfaces – The value of focus groups and when not to use them. For usability, testing is key. Comments (0)
On the Meta-Usability of User Interface Standards... or If the developer can't use it, the standard is not there – How usable are your usability standards? Comments (0)
July Adaptive Menu Design – How to select the best menu presentation style for a given application. Comments (1)
June Cracking Password Usability... Exploiting human memory to create secure and memorable passwords – This newsletter looks at a novel approach to password creation. Comments (1)
May Enough is Enough... but five probably isn't: Evaluating the "test-five-users" guideline – This newsletter revisits the topic of the optimum number of usability testing subjects. Comments (2)
April Tell Me the Story... The unifying role of scenarios in conceptual design – The importance of scenarios in user interface design. Comments (1)
March Welcome to the Global Village: Some considerations for doing usability in the global markets – The importance of considering local psychology in developing globalized Internet sites. Comments (0)
February Do Y'see What I'm Saying? Using visual hierarchy to support your message – The effect of visual hierarchy on user comprehension. Comments (0)
January Creating Effective Online Surveys: Owning Photoshop® doesn't make you an artist – What is required to make an online survey an effective data gathering tool. Comments (0)
December Key Research Findings Related to User-Centered Design (2002-2003) – The year-end list of key research findings in the field of usability. Comments (0)
From Bricks to Clicks: Building customer trust in the online environment – Online cues that increase and decrease consumer perception of merchant trustworthiness. Comments (0)
Decisions, Decisions... What's a poor user (and designer) to do? – Can thoughtful information design help users make better consumer choices? Comments (2)
Pitting Usability Testing Against Expert Review – When to use usability testing and when to use heuristic review. Comments (1)
Are We There Yet? Effects of Delay on User Perceptions of Web Sites – Recent research on how download times affect user perceptions of your Web pages. Comments (2)
July Press 8 for Natural Language: The Future of IVRs – The pros and cons of "natural language" interactive voice response systems. Comments (2)
June The Gradual Graying of the Internet... – Recent research regarding designing for the "elderly." Comments (1)
May Getting Your (Intended) Vote to Count – Usability issues involved in the United States voting system. Comments (0)
April Breadth vs. Depth – We revisit this question – which is best for your Web site? Comments (0)
March Web Credibility – What makes a Web site credible? Comments (0)
February Reading Text Online – Are we really ready to make research based decisions? Comments (0)
January Linking and Searching – Observations and guidelines on the effective use of searching and linking. Comments (0)
December Research-Based Observations – A list of dos and don'ts in UI design gleaned from the last year of usability research. Comments (0)
Optimal Line Length – What is the optimal line length when reading prose text from a monitor? Comments (1)
Web Site Layout – How should you lay out your Web site? Comments (3)
Making Research-Based Design Decisions – Results of last month's research poll. Comments (0)
Making Research-Based Design Decisions – What is the best way to get user-centered research results to practitioners? Comments (0)
July Age Classifications – When considering the age of users – how old is "old"? Comments (0)
June Readability Formulas – Consider your target audience, then write to a grade level that is or two levels below that. Comments (1)
May Parallel Design – Consider as many alternative design ideas as possible before selecting the best with which to begin the iterative process. Comments (0)
April Iterative Design – The limitations of "iterative design" methodologies. Comments (0)
March Challenging Current Practice – Using research-based guidelines can help direct the initial decisions, but then these decisions should be validated with appropriate usability testing. Comments (0)
February More About Fonts – What is the best font size and font style for Web sites? Comments (2)
January Location of the Scrollbar – Are scrollbars located close enough to where users typically work with a Website or list box to encourage the fastest possible use? Comments (1)
December Research-Based Observations – A year-end list of do's and don'ts that have recent research to support them Comments (0)
Predicting Human Performance – How good are designers at predicting user performance? Comments (0)
Multimedia and Learning – What can be done to a Web site to help users better remember the content? Comments (0)
Usability Testing – How reliable is usability performance testing? Comments (0)
Designing for the elderly – What can we do to enable older adults to interact with Web sites more effectively? Comments (0)
July The Growing Popularity of Usability – Why is computer system usability becoming so popular? Comments (0)
June Efficiency in Design – How can designers use existing, readily available, Web-based research to be more efficient when designing Web sites? Comments (0)
May Web Site Consistency – How consistent do web pages need to be in order to not degrade the performance of experienced users? Comments (0)
April Response Times – In a well-designed website, how long should users have to wait for pages to download? Comments (0)
March Screen Resolution – What screen resolution are you designing for? When is it time to change? Comments (0)
February Heuristic Evaluations vs. Usability Testing – The discussion continues from last month. Comments (0)
January Heuristic Evaluations vs. Usability Testing – The relative effectiveness of heuristic evaluations vs. usability testing. Comments (0)
December What does the Near Future Promise for Usability? – Usability-related observations from COMDEX Comments (0)
The Usability of Punched Ballots – Improving usability in America's voting systems. Calculating the number of test subjects required to find usability problems. Comments (0)
Link Affordance – How can designers improve the "link affordance" of their Web pages? What is the link affordance rate of your Web pages? Comments (0)
Reducing Reliance on Superstition – How to improve design decisions by reducing reliance on superstition. Let’s start with Miller’s "Magic 7" Comments (1)
Human Interaction Speeds – What are typical human interaction speeds for reading, listening, speaking, keying, and handwriting? Comments (0)
July Menu Selection – What can we do to speed-up website interactions? Comments (0)
June Improving User Performance – A recent task taxonomy of browser use concludes download time and scrolling are two major problems that developers need to address. Comments (0)
May Screen Resolution – Can users read faster when using monitors that are set at higher resolutions? Comments (0)
April Web Page Design – Where are the Facts? – Good grouping and good alignment make a difference. Pictures and words on buttons improve usability. Comments (0)
March e-Commerce Success? – What percent of the time do users find what they are looking for when using the Internet or corporate Intranet? Comments (0)
February Screen Size – Bigger is Much Better – Does the size of the screen relate to the speed with which work can be done? Is there any value in buying larger monitors or having larger Web pages? Comments (0)
January Speech Recognition – Why is it taking so long for speech to be used as a primary input method? Comments (0)
December Web Design Guidelines – What research-based guidelines are available for designing websites? Comments (0)
Optimum Time of Day for Optimum Performance – How can we ensure that older users perform as well as younger users in systems? Do younger and older users perform better at different times of the day?. Comments (0)
User Interface Displays – What direction are we going with user interface displays? Predictions for the future. Comments (1)
Multimedia and Working Memory Limitations – Working memory capacity can be "increased" by using two senses rather than one. Using Multimedia in Instruction – Some guidlelines. Comments (0)
Web Site Identity – The logo tells where you are Comments (0)
July e-Commerce and Screen Design – Usability more important than "fancy store fronts". e-Commerce Pricing – Buyers prefer sales to "everyday low prices". Comments (0)
June Handedness and Other Preferences – Designing to ensure that critical tasks are performed by the user's preferred hand – not as obvious as one might think. Comments (0)
May Heuristic Evaluations – Is there a useful set of usability heuristics currently available to practitioners? There is, but unfortunately the best set is not the one most widely used. Comments (0)
April Paging vs. Scrolling – No difference in speed, but paging results in better comprehension and memory of information. Paging vs. Scrolling – Paging works better for older users. Comments (0)
March Breadth vs. Depth – Broader structures enable faster performance. Breadth vs. Depth – 2 is the magic number. Comments (0)
February Screen Fonts – Study shows that fonts designed for screen viewing give no reliable performance differences in reading speed.
Speed Reading – Successively flashing individual words on screen improves reading performance.
Comments (1)
January Reading Speed and Comprehension – Then and Now – Paper vs. computer monitors – high resolution monitors change the results Comments (0)
December Prototyping – 2 separate studies find no significant difference between high- and low-fidelity prototypes in usability testing. Comments (0)
Usability Testing – which tests are most effective and when to use them.
Usability Software – computer-based tools for evaluating the efficiency of user interfaces.
Comments (0)
Design Considerations for Older Users. Traning and Age – Should training be different for younger and older users? Comments (0)
Is e-Commerce Thwarted by usability issues? Experience Counts – but novices shop less than expected. Strong Demand for e-commerce. Comments (0)
Proper UI Design is the basis of improving computer productivity.
Designing for Efficiency, not just sufficiency.
Comments (0)
July Displaying Information – Hearing spoken text and looking at graphics is the best way to promote user recall.
The Best Way to Learn – Structured exercises are most effective way to train software users.
Comments (0)
June Web Usability – Web research gives nine guidelines to improve user performance.
Multimedia – Design tips to promote user recall.
Comments (0)


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Privacy policy

Reviewed: 18 Mar 2014

This Privacy Policy governs the manner in which Human Factors International, Inc., an Iowa corporation (“HFI”) collects, uses, maintains and discloses information collected from users (each, a “User”) of its website and any derivative or affiliated websites on which this Privacy Policy is posted (collectively, the “Website”). HFI reserves the right, at its discretion, to change, modify, add or remove portions of this Privacy Policy at any time by posting such changes to this page. You understand that you have the affirmative obligation to check this Privacy Policy periodically for changes, and you hereby agree to periodically review this Privacy Policy for such changes. The continued use of the Website following the posting of changes to this Privacy Policy constitutes an acceptance of those changes.


HFI may use “cookies” or “web beacons” to track how Users use the Website. A cookie is a piece of software that a web server can store on Users’ PCs and use to identify Users should they visit the Website again. Users may adjust their web browser software if they do not wish to accept cookies. To withdraw your consent after accepting a cookie, delete the cookie from your computer.


HFI believes that every User should know how it utilizes the information collected from Users. The Website is not directed at children under 13 years of age, and HFI does not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from children under 13 years of age online. Please note that the Website may contain links to other websites. These linked sites may not be operated or controlled by HFI. HFI is not responsible for the privacy practices of these or any other websites, and you access these websites entirely at your own risk. HFI recommends that you review the privacy practices of any other websites that you choose to visit.

HFI is based, and this website is hosted, in the United States of America. If User is from the European Union or other regions of the world with laws governing data collection and use that may differ from U.S. law and User is registering an account on the Website, visiting the Website, purchasing products or services from HFI or the Website, or otherwise using the Website, please note that any personally identifiable information that User provides to HFI will be transferred to the United States. Any such personally identifiable information provided will be processed and stored in the United States by HFI or a service provider acting on its behalf. By providing your personally identifiable information, User hereby specifically and expressly consents to such transfer and processing and the uses and disclosures set forth herein.

In the course of its business, HFI may perform expert reviews, usability testing, and other consulting work where personal privacy is a concern. HFI believes in the importance of protecting personal information, and may use measures to provide this protection, including, but not limited to, using consent forms for participants or “dummy” test data.

The Information HFI Collects

Users browsing the Website without registering an account or affirmatively providing personally identifiable information to HFI do so anonymously. Otherwise, HFI may collect personally identifiable information from Users in a variety of ways. Personally identifiable information may include, without limitation, (i)contact data (such as a User’s name, mailing and e-mail addresses, and phone number); (ii)demographic data (such as a User’s zip code, age and income); (iii) financial information collected to process purchases made from HFI via the Website or otherwise (such as credit card, debit card or other payment information); (iv) other information requested during the account registration process; and (v) other information requested by our service vendors in order to provide their services. If a User communicates with HFI by e-mail or otherwise, posts messages to any forums, completes online forms, surveys or entries or otherwise interacts with or uses the features on the Website, any information provided in such communications may be collected by HFI. HFI may also collect information about how Users use the Website, for example, by tracking the number of unique views received by the pages of the Website, or the domains and IP addresses from which Users originate. While not all of the information that HFI collects from Users is personally identifiable, it may be associated with personally identifiable information that Users provide HFI through the Website or otherwise. HFI may provide ways that the User can opt out of receiving certain information from HFI. If the User opts out of certain services, User information may still be collected for those services to which the User elects to subscribe. For those elected services, this Privacy Policy will apply.

How HFI Uses Information

HFI may use personally identifiable information collected through the Website for the specific purposes for which the information was collected, to process purchases and sales of products or services offered via the Website if any, to contact Users regarding products and services offered by HFI, its parent, subsidiary and other related companies in order to otherwise to enhance Users’ experience with HFI. HFI may also use information collected through the Website for research regarding the effectiveness of the Website and the business planning, marketing, advertising and sales efforts of HFI. HFI does not sell any User information under any circumstances.

Disclosure of Information

HFI may disclose personally identifiable information collected from Users to its parent, subsidiary and other related companies to use the information for the purposes outlined above, as necessary to provide the services offered by HFI and to provide the Website itself, and for the specific purposes for which the information was collected. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information at the request of law enforcement or governmental agencies or in response to subpoenas, court orders or other legal process, to establish, protect or exercise HFI’s legal or other rights or to defend against a legal claim or as otherwise required or allowed by law. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information in order to protect the rights, property or safety of a User or any other person. HFI may disclose personally identifiable information to investigate or prevent a violation by User of any contractual or other relationship with HFI or the perpetration of any illegal or harmful activity. HFI may also disclose aggregate, anonymous data based on information collected from Users to investors and potential partners. Finally, HFI may disclose or transfer personally identifiable information collected from Users in connection with or in contemplation of a sale of its assets or business or a merger, consolidation or other reorganization of its business.

Personal Information as Provided by User

If a User includes such User’s personally identifiable information as part of the User posting to the Website, such information may be made available to any parties using the Website. HFI does not edit or otherwise remove such information from User information before it is posted on the Website. If a User does not wish to have such User’s personally identifiable information made available in this manner, such User must remove any such information before posting. HFI is not liable for any damages caused or incurred due to personally identifiable information made available in the foregoing manners. For example, a User posts on an HFI-administered forum would be considered Personal Information as provided by User and subject to the terms of this section.

Security of Information

Information about Users that is maintained on HFI’s systems or those of its service providers is protected using industry standard security measures. However, no security measures are perfect or impenetrable, and HFI cannot guarantee that the information submitted to, maintained on or transmitted from its systems will be completely secure. HFI is not responsible for the circumvention of any privacy settings or security measures relating to the Website by any Users or third parties.

Correcting, Updating, Accessing or Removing Personal Information

If a User’s personally identifiable information changes, or if a User no longer desires to receive non-account specific information from HFI, HFI will endeavor to provide a way to correct, update and/or remove that User’s previously-provided personal data. This can be done by emailing a request to HFI at Additionally, you may request access to the personally identifiable information as collected by HFI by sending a request to HFI as set forth above. Please note that in certain circumstances, HFI may not be able to completely remove a User’s information from its systems. For example, HFI may retain a User’s personal information for legitimate business purposes, if it may be necessary to prevent fraud or future abuse, for account recovery purposes, if required by law or as retained in HFI’s data backup systems or cached or archived pages. All retained personally identifiable information will continue to be subject to the terms of the Privacy Policy to which the User has previously agreed.

Contacting HFI

If you have any questions or comments about this Privacy Policy, you may contact HFI via any of the following methods:
Human Factors International, Inc.
PO Box 2020
1680 highway 1, STE 3600
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(800) 242-4480

Terms and Conditions for Public Training Courses

Reviewed: 18 Mar 2014

Cancellation of Course by HFI

HFI reserves the right to cancel any course up to 14 (fourteen) days prior to the first day of the course. Registrants will be promptly notified and will receive a full refund or be transferred to the equivalent class of their choice within a 12-month period. HFI is not responsible for travel expenses or any costs that may be incurred as a result of cancellations.

Cancellation of Course by Participants (All regions except India)

$100 processing fee if cancelling within two weeks of course start date.

Cancellation / Transfer by Participants (India)

4 Pack + Exam registration: Rs. 10,000 per participant processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the course (4 Pack-CUA/CXA) registration before three weeks from the course start date. No refund or carry forward of the course fees if cancelling or transferring the course registration within three weeks before the course start date.

Individual Modules: Rs. 3,000 per participant ‘per module’ processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the course (any Individual HFI course) registration before three weeks from the course start date. No refund or carry forward of the course fees if cancelling or transferring the course registration within three weeks before the course start date.

Exam: Rs. 3,000 per participant processing fee (to be paid by the participant) if cancelling or transferring the pre agreed CUA/CXA exam date before three weeks from the examination date. No refund or carry forward of the exam fees if requesting/cancelling or transferring the CUA/CXA exam within three weeks before the examination date.

No Recording Permitted

There will be no audio or video recording allowed in class. Students who have any disability that might affect their performance in this class are encouraged to speak with the instructor at the beginning of the class.

Course Materials Copyright

The course and training materials and all other handouts provided by HFI during the course are published, copyrighted works proprietary and owned exclusively by HFI. The course participant does not acquire title nor ownership rights in any of these materials. Further the course participant agrees not to reproduce, modify, and/or convert to electronic format (i.e., softcopy) any of the materials received from or provided by HFI. The materials provided in the class are for the sole use of the class participant. HFI does not provide the materials in electronic format to the participants in public or onsite courses.